The spectrometers are used for radionuclide analysis and for monitoring of activity in the nuclear industry and related environment monitoring. In this configuration, the electric contacts are provided on the two flat surfaces of a germanium crystal. The analog system components are available in several different types, allowing. Full energy peak efficiency of hpge detector 283 2 00 2 2 00 sin sin i wholesolidangle d dd q d dd. New generation of electricallycooled hpge detector arrays. Spectrum analysis introduction canberra industries. The main purpose of this paper is to validate the generic detector characterization for an hpge detector falcon 5000 companion to isocs software, to explore the possibilities of combining gamma counting system with isocs software calculations to improve the absolute measurement of nm samples i. These are known as the profile gem f and profile gem fx series respectively. The better efficiency calibration for hpge detector by. Please doubleclick the top of the video frame for a larger view. Learn more about ortecs high purity germanium radiation detectors hpge today. If the total counts are p and the endpoints of the horizontal line are b1 and b2, then the net area is given by.
Efficiency and resolution of hpge and naitl detectors. Hpge detector, gamma spectrometry, low background, montecarlo simulation, photomultiplier tube. Introduction the aim of this paper is to present the use of a high purity germanium gammaray detector hpge in an underground counting room at saclay near paris, france, along with a montecarlo simulation and analysis software suite. Reliability of the generic hpge detector characterization. Semiconductor detectors find broad application for radiation protection, gamma and xray spectrometry, and as particle detectors. A semiconductor detector in ionizing radiation detection physics is a device that uses a semiconductor usually silicon or germanium to measure the effect of incident charged particles or photons semiconductor detectors find broad application for radiation protection, gamma and xray spectrometry, and as particle detectors. Figure 7 shows the spectrum that results from the use of a very small detector, both below the pair production threshold 1. The second verification of detector for in situ measurements by presented method was performed on moral 12, which was held in exclusion zone of the chernobyl nuclear power plant in locality kopachi. Liquid nitrogen ln 2 or electromechanical cooling system are both available. Full energy peak efficiency calibration of hpge detector by mcnp 5. A schematic representation of the 45% hpge detector is presented in fig. To do this, select either the set workspace root directory icon or file, select workspace root directory. Isotopic abundances of up to approximately 90% can be achieved with standard industrial enrichment techniques 1. And the azimuthal angle is sampled by the equation.
Evaluation of cooling technologies for hpge detectors. The second area of detector performance evaluated was the emc hpge detector s cooling capabilities and its effect on the performance of the detector. Pdf studying of characteristics of the hpge detector for. This charge, which is in proportion to the energy deposited in the detector by the incoming photon, is converted into a voltage pulse by an integral chargesensitive preamplifier. A labr detector is generally preferable to a nai detector. Experimental and monte carlo determination of gamma.
This leads to many types of hpge detectors which are suitable for different applications or special research options. For natural samples with a very low activity it is difficult to separate the. Why high purity germanium hpge radiation detection. Although we had talented technicians who became very proficient at production and orren was able to keep cryostat design at a competitive level, we had no one on the staff doing device development. Experimental efficiency calibration for a hpge gammaray detector nks gammaspec 2017 seminar dtu nutech, roskilde, denmark 1920. Components of a gamma spectroscopy system detector types the most common not the only detectors in gamma spectroscopy systems. In addition to the highest resolution detector on the market, the falcon 5000 instrument integrates a unique bege detector that is superior in efficiency and lower in cost than standard coaxial detectors. Various types of image sensors covering a wide spectral. Part 1 the genie 2000 operations manual, including the s501 gamma analysis. Dec 03, 2010 diy brick rocket stove cooking without electrical power duration. Detective x algorithms beyond the intrinsic selectivity of the hpge detector type, the ultimate performance in terms of the detective x fidelity of identification depends on the software algorithms. Specification for hpge detector and accessories the items should be complete with all required accessories as per the detailed specification mentioned below.
Single element hpge xray detector a new device for synchrotron high count rate xray spectrometry applications unmatched energy resolution of germanium similar to sdd wide energy range up to 200 kev compact footprint for easy integration in the beamline no liquid nitrogen needed. The standard coaxial ptype detector serves for measurement of gammaradiation having energies between approx. Note hpge detector single element canberra industries. Profile hpge photon detector product configuration guide. Highpurity germanium detectors hpge can be produced from germanium material enriched in 76 ge, which serves simultaneously as a source and as detector medium. Efficiency calibration in gamma spectrometry by using th. Capacitive multiplexing on a hpge imaging detector abstract gammaray imagers based on high purity germanium hpge utilize multiple segmented strips of. Experimental efficiency calibration of a hpge detector 100 cm 3 for a point source at 12 cm between 10 and 1500 kev linear scale energy kev 0 200 400 600 800 1200 1400 1600 1800 efficiency % 0. Gaussian energy broadening function of an hpge detector in.
The cooling of large size germanium detectors up to cryogenic temperatures by application of lowpower cryocoolers makes the topical task of the thermal losses analysis. The essence of a poptop detector system is that the hpge detector element cryostat, preamplifier, and high voltage filter are housed in a detector capsule which is then attached to an appropriate cryostat figure 2. A precise model of hpge detector type gc4018 p type was created for photon detection efficiency calculation using the mcnp 4a code. Detection of special nuclear material with high purity. Portable hpge detector is designed for detection, accumulation and processing of gamma spectra in field and industry conditions where small dimensions and weight of spectrometer are important. Calibration of gmx hpge detector with nbs reference source. The picture of the hpge detector and diagram of the experimental setup are shown in. Hpge detector technology with ultralow microphonic electrical cooling. Hyperpure germanium detector introduction the aim of this experiment is to be familia r with a hyperpure germ anium hpge detector used as a ray spectrometer. Studying of characteristics of the hpge detector for. Determination of the photopeak detection efficiency of a hpge detector, for volume sources, via monte carlo simulations by raphael wesley damon dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the master of science degree in physics at the university of the western cape july 2005 supervisors.
Soil in kopachi consists of sand with density of 1. Workshop on basic radiation detection and simulation with. Multichannel analyzer systems were used to collect and. A large hpge detector for the nondestructive radioassay of. Both energy resolution and efficiency will be explored as a function of ray energy. Gem series coaxial hpge detector product configuration guide ptype coaxial hpge detectors for high performance gamma spectroscopy in the energy range of 40 kev and up. The area above the background represents the total counts between the vertical lines minus the trapezoidal area below the horizontal line. Due to a larger diameter crystal, at 122 kev, the sseries. A detailed procedure to simulate an hpge detector with mcnp5. The concept of a virtual point detector vpd has been developed and validated in the past for geli and hpge detectors. High purity germanium detector calibration at isolde. Materials and methods for this purpose we used a spectrometric gamma system ortec with the following components and characteristics.
The high purity germanium detectors hpge complete set is composed by the following components. This charge, which is in proportion to the energy deposited in the detector by the incoming photon, is converted into a voltage. Various types of image sensors covering a wide spectral response range for photometry hamamatsu develops and produces advanced image sensors for measurement applications in wide spectral and energy ranges including infrared, visible, ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet, soft xrays and hard xrays. Profile hpge photon detector product configuration guide the resolution improvement above the sseries is illustrated in figure 7 where two peaks from an 55 fe point source positioned 25 cm away from the front of the endcap are overlaid. Falcon 5000 portable hpgebased radionuclide identifier. The equivalent thermal model of detector unit and stirling. Calibration of hpge detector for in situ measurements 7. For the nuclear hobbyist, an hpge opens a window into a fascinating realm of homeaccessible, lowintensity nuclear reactions that are obscured by background in other detectors lacking the superlative resolution. New generation of electricallycooled hpge detector arrays for xray spectroscopy j. A comparison between hpge and naitlsystems in finding. Profile hpge photon detector product configuration guide figure 3 reinforces the marked improvement in efficiency for the profile s detectors when measuring a filter paper onendcap source.
The dependence of the energy resolution on the shaping parameter will be investigated. S8530 has significantly higher absolute efficiency at all energies below 1 mev down to 10 kev. The results show that neither of the detectors was ideally capable of supporting dtras requirements. Singh 1 1inter university accelerator center, new delhi 110067 2department of physics and astrophysics, universit y of delhi, new delhi 17 e mail address.
Highpurity germanium hpge detectors and spectrometers for gamma analysis, waste management, environmental monitoring, laboratory analysis, insitu measurements, homeland security, health physics, lowbackground measurements. The energy response function also was calculated using. The comparison between a scintillation detector and hpge detector has been discussed. Germanium hpge detector detector efficiencye the detector efficiency in eq. The soil surface was covered by grass with height up to of 40 cm with dense root. Sodium iodide nai lanthanum bromide labr 21 lanthanum bromide labr high purity germanium hpge of these, the hpge is easily the best. Pulse shape discrimination studies with a broad energy. No experimental calibration point was used for determination of detector parameters. A typical analog hpge detector based gamma spectroscopy system consists of a hpge detector, high voltage power supply, preamplifier which is usually sold as part of the detector, amplifier, analogue to digital coverter adc, and multichannel analyzer mca. The majority of gamma spectroscopy applications such as those found in counting laboratories involve the energy range 40 kev upward. The automated hpge spectrometer is a fully automated systems with a robotic sample changer enabling the user to measure up to 40 samples, without having to interact with the automated spectrometer. Ortec provides a comprehensive suite of hpge radiation detector solutions covering an extensive range of energies and for a variety of applications. Resolution of hpge detector and nai tl detector as function of energy.
Radionuclide standards of cmi and ptb were used for model verification in the energy range 40 to 2615 kev for. Ortec licensed the original lawrence livermore radscout algorithm in 2003 and has made numerous improvements to it over the years. The data obtained was tabulated and graphically presented. The hpge detector is an dsg planar high purity germanium crystal with a diameter of 16mm, a length of 10mm, a beryllium window of 0. Photo courtesy canberra industries the canberra cryocycle hpge detector cooler is a closedsystem nitrogen n 2 reliquifier incorporating a 15watt freepiston linear stirling cooler. Canberra found success in geli detector manufacturing by making refinements to the basic processes that fiedler brought with him. An example of a planar hpge detector using a ptype crystal is shown in fig. A semiconductor detector in ionizing radiation detection physics is a device that uses a semiconductor usually silicon or germanium to measure the effect of incident charged particles or photons. Why highpurity germanium hpge radiation detection technology is superior to other detector technologies for isotope identification synopsis. However lately the interest of using hpge high purity germaniumbased systems have increased and one has realised that the excellent energy resolution of hpge detectors, in combination with the possibility to manufacture larger crystals than before, is an advantage not only when performing.
Calibration of gmx hpge detector with nbs reference source 57 table 2. Messenger pds viewer the first step is to specify a directory that will be the root of the workspace. This volume contains the operating manuals for four related programs, each separated by a blue divider. The lowbackground lead shielding together with the highly pure germanium hpge ptype detector gives precise results even for low activity materials. The photopeak efficiency, the peak to valley ratio, the energy resolution and the minimum detectable activity of a hpge detector were determined experimentally for. Live simple, live free tinyhouse prepper recommended for you.
The fully automated sample changer enables the user to measure more than 40 samples, without having to interact with the robotic gamma spectrometer. Full energy peak efficiency calibration of hpge detector by mcnp. The high purity germanium spectroscopy detector is used in the detection and analysis of gammaray of environmental objects in nuclear energetics, products of industry and agriculture, medicine, etc. Up to recently mobile gamma spectrometry has mostly been performed with naitlbased detector systems. Highpurity germanium hpge detectors are widely used in nuclear spectroscopy e. Determination of full energy peak efficiency of hpge detector. The falcon 5000 unit is a highly powerful and customizable field. Gem series coaxial hpge detector product configuration guide. High efficiency of radiation detection high energy rate up to 200000 mevsec excellent peak symmetry detection of radiation in any spatial orientation depending on cryostat modification. Hpge detector, detection efficiency, point sources, multinuclides source i. Detection and analysis of gammaray of environmental objects in nuclear energetics, products of industry and agriculture, medicine, etc. Determination of the photopeak detection efficiency of a hpge.
Semiconductor detectors the choice of a particular detector type for an application depends upon the xray or gamma energy range of interest and the. Experimental efficiency calibration for a hpge gammaray detector. A bias voltage of 1500v is applied to the detector. Finally, identi cation of di erent types of interaction of gammarays with matter, energy calibration, energy resolution and photopeak e ciency calculation will be performed with hpge detector, which has been. High purity germanium hpge is the only radiation detection technology that provides sufficient information to accurately and reliably identify radionuclides from their passive gamma ray emissions. This shielding system was manufactured in our laboratory at the ubb clujnapoca. Ortec the best choice of high purity germanium hpge detector figure 1. Gamma and xray detection introduction canberra industries. Review the basic physics involved with gammaray radiation detection and discuss the limits of the simulation physics. Thermal modeling of cooldown processes in portable hpge. Sep 16, 2011 a highpurity germanium hpge detector is the ultimate instrument for energy spectrometry of gamma radiation. Introduction the use of germanium detectors in highresolution gammaray spectrometry is one of the most widely used procedures for the identification and quantification of unknown gammaray emitting radionuclides in samples.
In so called streamline systems, the detector capsule is not demountable. Because high purity germanium detectors hpge has relatively low band gap, these detectors must be cooled down. This reliable robotic sample changer increases the productivity and reduces the possibility of health risks hpge systems hpge all in one. Benchmark hpge detector measurements this introductory workshop on basic radiation detection and simulation will cover the following topics. The detector s axis coincides with the x axis and the center of the base of the crystal was positioned at 0,0,0 x,y,z. Welltype hpge detectors gwd application detection of gammarays in nuclear energetics and environmental control, in industry and scientific research, in nuclear medicine and other applications. Rittersdorf gamma ray spectroscopy 7 conclusions 43 appendices i a 57co decay scheme i b 60co decay scheme ii c 7cs decay scheme iii d 22na decay scheme iv e 3ba decay scheme v f 109cd decay scheme vi g 54mn decay scheme vii h hpge detector apparatus viii i raw gammaray spectra ix references ix 2. In so called streamline systems, the detector capsule in not demountable.
Thus, the performance of both detectors was discussed by comparing the parameters. Like the bege detector, the sage well offers excellent energy resolution performance over an energy range. Full energy peak efficiency calibration of hpge detector. Evaluation of hpge detector efficiency for point sources. In addition to the highest resolution detector on the market, the falcon 5000 integrates a unique bege detector that is superior in efficiency and lower in cost than standard coaxial detectors. The essence of a poptop detector system is that the hpge detector element cryostat, preamplifier, and high voltage filter are housed in a detector capsule which is then attached to an appropriate cryostat figure 4. In the present research, a new semiempirical equation involving photon energy and sourcevirtual point detector distance for the efficiency of point sources by hpge detectors is introduced, which is based on the vpd model.817 137 1261 1328 1111 1485 1193 289 1099 259 439 638 1555 884 1561 451 1406 591 245 1078 1471 766 1538 836 1445 559 628 150 974 64 6 673 125 1326 782 290 386